In-situ real-time x-ray diffraction studies

The in-situ x-ray diffraction to investigate epitaxial layers during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth has been established in our PHARAO facility at the Berlin synchrotron BESSY II (Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin). The successful operation of such a setup critically depends on the continuous stationary operation of the MBE at the synchrotron, since a high quality of the epitaxial layers and interface is imperative for a reliable quantitative analysis.


X-ray diffraction as a non-destructive probe can penetrate fairly thick layers and therefore allows us to study surfaces, interfaces and structures inside the volume of the crystal. As a diffraction technique, it combines sub-Angstrom spatial resolution with a large interaction volume that provides statistically reliable material properties. Since unrestricted growth is possible during diffraction, we can follow interfaces during the entire process of their formation.


Performed in-situ, under real growth conditions, and in real time, our research improves the understanding of fundamental growth processes in MBE.


Our work focuses on the study of epitaxial growth modes, the structural analysis of surfaces, interfaces and complete layer stacks, phase transitions, and phenomena associated with the combination of very dissimilar materials.


Besides the in-situ diagnostic at BESSYII we perform complementary x-ray diffraction at further synchrotron sources as PETRAIII and the European source ESRF. Of particular interest are newly approaching techniques like x-ray diffraction with highly focused x-ray spots.

Selected Publications

3 Author M. Hanke , V. M. Kaganer , O. Bierwagen , M. Niehle , A. Trampert

Delayed crystallization of ultrathin Gd2O3 on Si(111) observed by in vivo x-ray diffraction

Source Nanoscale Res. Lett. , 7 , 203 ( 2012 )
Download: PDF | 2231 Cite : Bibtex RIS
M. Hanke, V. M. Kaganer, O. Bierwagen, M. Niehle, and A. Trampert

2 Author V. M. Kaganer , B. Jenichen , R. Shayduk , W. Braun , H. Riechert

Kinetic optimum of Volmer-Weber growth

Source Phys. Rev. Lett. , 102 , 016103 ( 2009 )
Download: PDF | 1972 Cite : Bibtex RIS
V. M. Kaganer, B. Jenichen, R. Shayduk, W. Braun, and H. Riechert

1 Author B. Jenichen , W. Braun , V. M. Kaganer , Alexander G. Shtukenberg , Lutz Däweritz , Carl-Günther Schulz , Klaus H. Ploog , Alexei Erko

Combined molecular beam epitaxy and diffractometer system for in situ x-ray studies of crystal growth

Source Rev. Sci. Instrum. , 74 , 1267 ( 2003 )
Download: PDF | 238 Cite : Bibtex RIS
B. Jenichen, W. Braun, V. M. Kaganer, Alexander G. Shtukenberg, Lutz Däweritz, Carl-Günther Schulz, Klaus H. Ploog, and Alexei Erko


Dr. Achim Trampert

Head of Department 

+49 30 20377-280