Confocal Raman microscopes
For spatially resolved µ-Raman- and photoluminescence spectroscopy, two commercial setups are available, namely, a Jobin-Yvon Horiba LabRAM HR Evolution and a Renishaw inVia Raman microscope. Both instruments utilize single spectrometers and edge/notch filters for stray light suppression, as well as confocal microscopes for excitation and detection. They combine high spectral resolution, high optical throughput, and ease of use.
Each system is equipped with different lasers offering multiple excitation wavelengths: 244, 325, 405, 473 and 633 nm for the Evolution, and 325 and 532 nm for the inVia setup. In both cases, the scattered or emitted light is detected by UV-enhanced CCD cameras. Cryostats are available for measurements at temperatures from 10 to 300 K as well as a heating-/cooling stage (Linkam) for temperatures between 77 and 850 K. Automated mapping is possible in ambient, cryogenic and heated environments. In the Evolution setup, a determination of the Raman tensor elements is facilitated by an automated measurement of the polarization-dependent Raman scattering efficiency.