The Department of Microstructure focuses on the analysis of microstructures and the exploration of their structure-property-relationships. We use techniques such as x-ray and electron diffraction, transmission electron and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to analyze the structural, electronic and mechanical properties of a wide range of materials and quantum systems. Our powerful scanning transmission electron microscope is used for electron tomography to visualize and analyze the three-dimensional structure and chemical information of complex materials with sub-nanometer resolution. Our team is responsible for the operational use of the PHARAO beamline at the Berlin synchrotron BESSY II - a third generation synchrotron radiation source, unique in Germany, to observe in-situ growth during molecular beam epitaxy by means of diffraction experiments.